Key Takeaways:

  • Facts that are widely known and easily verifiable, such as historical events or basic scientific principles, are considered common knowledge. These examples do not require citation and are exempt from accusations of intellectual theft.
  • Using well-documented and credible internet sources appropriately, with correct citations, ensures that the information is not mistaken for fraudulently obtained content. Avoiding fake sources is key to maintaining credibility.
  • Not all information needs to be cited. Common types of public domain content, such as widely accepted folklore or proverbs, can be used freely without attribution, as they do not qualify as misappropriated content.
  • When engaging with source material, summarising or paraphrasing accurately and giving proper credit helps differentiate genuine knowledge-building efforts from potential deceitful practices.

Plagiarism, the act of using someone else’s work, ideas, or expressions without proper acknowledgment, is a significant concern in academic, professional, and creative fields. However, there are instances where the use of information, ideas, or expressions does not constitute plagiarism.

Understanding what cannot be considered plagiarism is crucial for students, professionals, and creators to navigate the fine line between ethical use and intellectual theft.

This article aims to explore various scenarios and practices that do not fall under the category of plagiarism, thereby promoting a clearer understanding of ethical practices in writing and research.

Understanding Plagiarism

To delineate what is not considered plagiarism, it is essential first to understand what constitutes plagiarism. Plagiarism typically involves:

  • Copying text verbatim without proper citation.
  • Paraphrasing someone else’s ideas without acknowledgment.
  • Using someone else’s work (data, images, etc.) without credit.
  • Presenting another person’s ideas or expressions as one’s own.

What Cannot be Considered as Plagiarism?

Plagiarism is an ethical breach that undermines the principles of intellectual honesty, originality, and respect for others’ contributions. However, there are several scenarios and practices that are explicitly excluded from being considered plagiarism.

Common Knowledge

Common knowledge refers to information that is widely known and accepted by the general public or a specific group without needing a citation.

Facts, by their very nature, are not owned by any one person. Scientific discoveries, historical events, and commonly held knowledge all fall under this category. You can freely reference these in your work without attribution, as long as they are readily verifiable from multiple sources.

This can include:

  • Historical facts: e.g., “The Declaration of Independence was signed in 1776.”
  • Scientific facts: e.g., “Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius at sea level.”
  • Widely accepted ideas or observations: e.g., “The Earth orbits the Sun.”

Because these facts are readily available from numerous sources and generally undisputed, they do not require citation. However, the boundary of common knowledge can sometimes be blurry.

However, using a specific theory explaining this phenomenon, like heliocentrism, would necessitate crediting the astronomer who proposed it.

In academic or specialised fields, what constitutes common knowledge may differ, and when in doubt, it is safer to provide a citation.

Original Ideas and Expressions

When you create original content, it is inherently free from plagiarism. This includes:

  • Your own research findings and data.
  • Personal experiences and observations.
  • Original thoughts, interpretations, and analyses.

As long as your work is genuinely your own and not derived from someone else’s ideas or expressions, it cannot be considered plagiarism. This is true even if your ideas are similar to those of others, provided you did not copy them.

Properly Cited and Quoted Material

does not constitute plagiarism

Using someone else’s work with correct citation and acknowledgment does not constitute plagiarism. This can include:

  • Direct quotes: When you use the exact words from a source and enclose them in quotation marks, followed by an appropriate citation.
  • Paraphrasing: Restating someone else’s ideas in your own words with proper attribution to the original source.
  • Summarising: Condensing the main points of a source into a brief overview, again with proper citation.

Proper citation involves adhering to the specific citation style required (such as APA, MLA, or Chicago) and ensuring that all sources are correctly referenced. By giving credit where it is due, you respect the original author’s intellectual property and contribute to the scholarly conversation ethically.

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Standard Sections of Academic and Professional Documents

Certain standard sections of academic and professional documents do not constitute plagiarism as they are commonly expected components and do not contain unique intellectual property. These include:

Table of Contents: A listing of the sections and chapters in a document, which is a standard feature for navigational purposes.

Preface: An introductory section where the author may discuss the purpose, scope, and background of the work, often in a personal voice. It typically contains acknowledgments and is unique to each work.

Bibliography: A comprehensive list of sources and references used in the creation of the document. Properly compiled bibliographies demonstrate thorough research and respect for original sources.

Standard Equations, Laws, and Generic Terms

In scientific and academic writing, certain standard elements do not constitute plagiarism:

Standard Equations: Commonly used mathematical and scientific equations that are well-known and widely accepted within a discipline. For example, E=mc² (Einstein’s mass-energy equivalence) does not require citation.

Scientific Laws and Theories: Established scientific laws and theories, such as Newton’s laws of motion or the theory of relativity, which are foundational knowledge in science.

Generic Terms and Phrases: Common terminology and phrases that are widely used in a particular field or everyday language, such as “supply and demand” in economics or “photosynthesis” in biology.

Collaborative Work

In academic and professional settings, collaborative work is common, and it is not considered plagiarism as long as the contributions of all participants are acknowledged. This includes:

  • Group projects: Where the collective effort is recognised, and individual contributions are specified if required.
  • Co-authored papers: Where all authors are listed, and their contributions are appropriately credited.

In collaborative work, clear communication and documentation of each person’s role and input help prevent misunderstandings and ensure proper acknowledgment.

Public Domain Works

Works in the public domain are not subject to copyright and can be used freely without the risk of plagiarism. These works include:

  • Works whose copyrights have expired (typically works published before 1923 in the United States).
  • Works explicitly released into the public domain by the creator.
  • Certain government publications and documents.

While public domain works do not require citation for copyright purposes, it is still considered good academic practice to acknowledge the sources, especially if the work is not widely known.

Ideas and Concepts

ideas and concepts

Plagiarism primarily concerns the expression of ideas rather than the ideas themselves. Using general ideas or concepts that are not uniquely attributable to a specific source is not considered plagiarism.

This includes:

Theories and hypotheses: Provided they are widely discussed and not unique to a single source.

General principles or methods: Commonly used in a field without specific attribution.

However, when discussing specific implementations or unique interpretations of ideas, proper citation is necessary to avoid plagiarism.

Inspiration and Influence

Being inspired by others’ work is a natural part of the creative and scholarly process, and drawing influence from various sources is not plagiarism as long as you create something new and original. This can include:

Artistic influence: Creating artwork inspired by the style or themes of another artist without copying their specific works.

Scholarly influence: Developing new research or theories based on existing literature, with proper citation of the original works that informed your thinking.

Inspiration and influence involve transforming existing ideas into new, original expressions, which is a legitimate and valued aspect of creative and intellectual work.

Properly Licensed Material

Using material that you have received explicit permission to use or that is covered under a proper license is not considered plagiarism. This includes:

  • Licensed content: Such as images, music, or text that you have obtained through a licensing agreement.
  • Open-access resources: Material available under Creative Commons licenses or similar open-access policies, provided you adhere to the terms of the license, such as giving appropriate credit.
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When using licensed material, it is essential to understand and comply with the specific terms and conditions of the license to ensure ethical use.

Personal Communications

Information obtained through personal communications, such as interviews, emails, or conversations, can be used without being considered plagiarism as long as the source is acknowledged. This includes:

Direct quotes from interviews: Properly cited with the date and context of the communication.

Information from personal correspondence: Credited to the individual who provided it.

Personal communications are typically cited differently from published sources but still require acknowledgment to respect the contributions of the individuals involved.

Teaching and Educational Use

In educational settings, teachers and students often use existing materials for learning and instructional purposes. This can include:

Classroom discussions and lectures: Where ideas and content are shared for educational purposes without formal citation.

Student assignments: Where students are encouraged to engage with existing literature and ideas, provided they adhere to academic integrity guidelines.

While educational use often allows for more flexibility in using existing materials, it is still important to teach and practice proper citation to foster a culture of academic honesty.

Transformative Use

Transformative use refers to creating new works that significantly alter the original content, adding new meaning, context, or purpose. This can include:

Parody and satire: Works that humorously imitate or criticise the original content.

Commentary and criticism: Analysis and critique that add new insights or perspectives.

Transformative works are generally protected under the fair use doctrine and are not considered plagiarism as long as they do not simply replicate the original content without adding new value.

Reporting and Summarising

reporting and summarising

News reporting thrives on the dissemination of factual information. When reporting on current events, it’s perfectly acceptable to summarise the details of a press release or news conference, as long as you’re not simply copying it verbatim.

Attributing the source of the information strengthens your credibility and allows readers to delve deeper into the story if they choose.

Similarly, summarising the arguments or findings of a research paper in your own words is not plagiarism. Here, you’re conveying the essence of the work while offering your own analysis or interpretation.

The key lies in demonstrating your understanding of the material and offering a new perspective.

A simple one-sentence summary likely wouldn’t qualify as fair use, but a well-developed paragraph that captures the key points while adding your own insights would be acceptable.

What are the Things That Cannot be Plagiarised?

Here are a few additional points to consider:

Facts Presented in Multiple Sources: If a fact is verifiable through multiple credible sources and isn’t considered particularly unique or groundbreaking, you likely don’t need to cite it. For example, the population of a major city wouldn’t require a citation in most contexts.

Titles, Names, and Slogans: Titles of works, names of people and places, and common slogans generally can’t be plagiarised. However, be mindful of trademarks if using a slogan associated with a specific brand.

Natural Phenomena: The names of natural phenomena like planets, historical events, or geographical locations cannot be plagiarised.

Formats and Styles: Specific formats for documents (e.g., lab reports, business proposals) or writing styles (e.g., APA format) are not considered intellectual property theft.


  • Even when using non-plagiarism categories, context is important. If you’re heavily relying on someone else’s work, even if it falls under one of these categories, consider citing it for transparency.
  • Copyright laws still apply to creative works. Always obtain permission or use resources with clear reuse licenses.
  • The key principle is to avoid presenting someone else’s work as your own and to give credit where credit is due.
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Beyond Citation: Cultivating Originality

While citation is key to avoiding plagiarism, true originality goes a step further. Here’s how to develop your own voice and contribute meaningfully:

Engage Critically: Don’t just accept information; analyse, evaluate, and form your own conclusions.

Build on Existing Knowledge: Use the work of others as a springboard for your own research and insights.

Develop Your Voice and Style: Refine your writing and communication skills to express yourself clearly and persuasively.

Offer New Perspectives and Analyses: Don’t simply repeat existing arguments; contribute fresh interpretations and viewpoints.

Conduct Original Research: Engage in primary research (e.g., experiments, surveys) to add new knowledge to your field.


Understanding what cannot be considered plagiarism is as important as recognising what constitutes it.

Common knowledge, original ideas, properly cited and quoted material, collaborative work, public domain works, general ideas and concepts, inspiration and influence, properly licensed material, personal communications, educational use, and transformative use are all scenarios that fall outside the bounds of potential plagiarism.

By recognising these distinctions, individuals can navigate the ethical use of information and ideas more effectively.

Promoting a clear understanding of these boundaries helps foster a culture of intellectual honesty and respect for others’ contributions.

It encourages creativity, collaboration, and the ethical dissemination of knowledge.

Whether in academic, professional, or creative fields, adhering to these principles ensures that one’s work is both original and respectful of the intellectual property of others.

To ensure plagiarism-free content, book a demo with Bytescare online plagiarism checker.

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Can I use my own research findings and still be accused of imitation?

No, your own research findings and data are original to you and cannot be considered imitation. As long as the work is genuinely your own and not derived from someone else’s ideas or expressions, it remains your intellectual property.

If I properly cite and quote material, can it still be considered replication?

No, using someone else’s work with correct citation style and acknowledgment is not considered replication. Properly cited direct quotations, paraphrases, and summaries respect the original author’s intellectual property and contribute to the scholarly conversation ethically.

How does collaborative work avoid being labeled as unauthorised copying?

Collaborative work, such as group projects or co-authored papers, is not considered unauthorised copying as long as all participants’ contributions are acknowledged. Clear communication and documentation of each person’s role help ensure proper recognition and avoid any claims of duplication.

Are public domain works exempt from being considered intellectual theft?

Yes, works in the public domain are not subject to copyright and can be used freely without the risk of intellectual theft. This includes works whose copyrights have expired, certain government publications, and works explicitly released into the public domain by their creators.

Why are standard equations and scientific laws not considered duplication?

Standard equations and scientific laws are foundational knowledge widely accepted within their respective disciplines. Since these are common to the field and not uniquely attributable to a specific external source, they do not require citation and are not considered duplication.

Is it considered unauthorised use if I am inspired by someone else’s work?

Being inspired by others’ work and creating something new and original is not considered unauthorised use. As long as you transform existing ideas into new expressions and do not merely replicate the original content, it is a legitimate and valued aspect of creative and intellectual work.