/ Understanding Associated Trademarks: A Comprehensive Guide

Understanding Associated Trademarks: A Comprehensive Guide

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Manish Jindal

March 1, 2024


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Understanding Associated Trademarks: A Comprehensive Guide

Key Takeaways:

  • Associated trademarks allow businesses to extend their brand identity to new products or services, leveraging existing brand recognition and trust.
  • Linking new ventures to a well-known brand mitigates risks associated with market entry or launching novel products.
  • Consumers are more likely to try and trust products or services under a familiar brand name, fostering deeper customer loyalty.
  • Associated trademarks help businesses stand out from competitors by offering a unique value proposition tied to a respected brand identity.
  • They simplify the management of related brand rights in cases of transfer or assignment.

Trademarks are crucial for identifying the source of goods or services, enabling consumers to recognise and differentiate between various products in the marketplace.

These identifiers can include symbols, logos, names, and slogans, traditionally protecting a business owner’s common law rights across a range of products or services in respect of specific categories, such as beauty products.

Associated trademarks introduce a nuanced layer to the conventional understanding of trademarks.

They facilitate a business’s ability to broaden its brand identity to encompass secondary goods or services, linking them through resemblance of marks or identical marks to a well-established primary brand.

This strategic use of associated service marks in applications for registration helps in amplifying brand recognition, enhancing consumer loyalty, and minimising market confusion by clearly delineating the origin of a comprehensive suite of products or services under a single brand umbrella.

What is an Associated Trademark?

An associated trademark, as defined by the Trademarks Act 1999 in India, refers to trademarks that are either deemed or required to be registered as associated trademarks under the act.

This form of trademark registration is crucial for a proprietor in respect to managing separate trademarks under the same or similar brand for different goods or services.

When goods and services are so closely related that they might be perceived as being sold or traded by the same business, they are considered associated.

For example, if a business that has a trade mark for ready-made garments decides to expand into the footwear market under the same brand name, registering these as associated trademarks ensures the market is not confused by the expansion.

This approach helps in maintaining clarity and continuity in the brand’s identity across different categories of identical products or closely related services, thereby safeguarding the proprietor’s interests and reinforcing the brand’s market position.


Here are a few examples of associated trademarks:


  • Apple Inc. has a primary trademark for its technology products.
  • Associated trademarks include “iTunes,” “iCloud,” and “Apple Music.”
  • These associated marks cover different services but share the same brand identity.


  • The golden arches logo and the name “McDonald’s” are the primary trademarks.
  • Associated trademarks include “McFlurry,” “McNuggets,” and “McChicken.”
  • These associated marks represent specific food items under the McDonald’s brand.

Louis Vuitton:

  • The LV monogram and the brand name are the primary trademarks for luxury fashion goods.
  • Associated trademarks include variations like “Louis Vuitton Alma,” “Louis Vuitton Neverfull,” and “Louis Vuitton Speedy.”
  • These associated marks cover different handbag designs within the same brand.

Remember, associated trademarks help businesses maintain consistency and protect their brand identity across various products and services.

Purpose of Associated Trademark

The concept of “associated trademarks” as outlined in Section 2(c) in conjunction with Section 16 of the Trademarks Act, 1999, is primarily designed to prevent confusion or deception among the trade community and the public regarding the source of goods/services.

A mark is eligible for registration as an associated trademark only if its use by someone other than the owner is likely to mislead or confuse.

The benefit of registering a trademark as an associated trademark extends beyond providing clarity to the public and ensuring accurate records within the Trademarks Registry.

The owners of associated trademarks gain specific advantages under Indian trademark law.

For instance, Section 55 of the Trademarks Act, 1999 states that in situations where the use of a registered trademark needs to be demonstrated for any legal purpose, the tribunal has the discretion to consider the use of an associated trademark as evidence of the use of the registered trademark in question.

This implies that in the context of associated trademarks, utilising one associated trademark can be adequate to establish the use of all other associated trademarks, although this is not a compulsory requirement and is subject to the tribunal’s discretion.

Furthermore, it has been noted that applications for new marks are often approved with fewer objections by the Trademarks Registry if the new mark is linked to previously registered marks, indicating a smoother registration process for marks that are associated with existing registered trademarks.

Related article: Abandoned Trademark


Associated trademarks bring a wealth of benefits to businesses aiming to diversify their offerings and bolster their presence in the market, all while safeguarding their intellectual property rights.

Brand Extension: In simple terms, an associate trademark acts as a bridge for companies to venture into new product lines or markets, capitalising on the established brand equity and the trust they’ve already built with consumers.

Risk Mitigation: Associating new goods or services with a well-known brand reduces the risks associated with entering new market segments or launching novel products. This strategy uses the brand’s existing authority in respect of services and products to support new ventures.

Consumer Loyalty: Customers are more inclined to try and continue purchasing new products or services from a brand they already know and trust. This familiarity fosters stronger customer retention and deepens loyalty.

Market Differentiation: Through associated trademarks, businesses can set themselves apart from competitors, offering a unique value proposition that is rooted in a recognisable and respected brand identity.

Improved Marketing Efficiency: Utilising the recognition and goodwill of the main trademark allows for more effective marketing strategies for associated products or services.

This can result in significant savings and greater impact, as the existing brand’s reputation provides a solid foundation for promoting new offerings under the same or similar business names.

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Related article: Brand and Trademark Protection

Why are Associated Trademarks Important?

The importance of associated trademarks lies in their ability to:

  • Prevent confusion between the main trademark and other identical trademarks held by the same entity.
  • Simplify the rights landscape in the event of a trademark being transferred or assigned.
  • Enhance Brand Management: They enable the creation of distinct sub-brands while maintaining overall brand consistency, fostering a unified brand experience.

Application of Associated Trademarks

When reviewing a trademark application, the trademark registrar assesses whether the proposed mark is identical to:

  • Another trademark that is already registered.
  • A trademark application that is currently being processed by the Trademark Office.
  • Trademarks owned by the same proprietor, covering either similar or identical goods and services, or goods within the same class.

If it is determined that the trademark application is identical to another trademark as outlined above, the registrar will require that they be registered as associated trademarks.

How to Apply for?

To apply for associated trademarks during the registration process, an applicant must express their intention for the marks to be associated directly on the trademark registration Form TM-A.

If this intention is not initially indicated, the registrar may suggest making the association.

In such instances, the applicant will need to modify the original application by submitting an additional Form TM-M to amend Form TM-A, thereby requesting the association.


Associated trademarks represent a powerful tool for brand expansion and diversification in today’s competitive marketplace.

By linking secondary goods or services to an established brand, businesses can capitalise on consumer trust, loyalty, and brand equity.

Understanding the purpose, advantages, and significance of associated trademarks is essential for leveraging this strategic asset effectively.

This strategic approach, coupled with comprehensive brand protection services like Bytescare, empowers you to safeguard your brand identity on a global scale, including leading social media platforms.

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Can I use an associated trademark for unrelated products or services?

While associated trademarks are typically used for related or complementary goods or services, there is some flexibility in their application. However, using an associated trademark for entirely unrelated products may weaken its legal protection and dilute the brand’s identity.

Are associated trademarks only applicable to large corporations?

No, associated trademarks can benefit businesses of all sizes, from multinational corporations to small enterprises.

Whether you’re expanding into new product categories or targeting niche markets, associated trademarks offer a versatile branding strategy.

When might I use an associated trademark?

Consider using an associated trademark if you want to:

a. Launch a new product line within your existing brand.
b. Cater to a specific customer segment with a slightly different brand personality.
c. Extend your brand into a new market vertical.

What are the risks of using associated trademarks?

The main risk is choosing an associated trademark that is too similar to an existing trademark, leading to potential infringement issues or confusion amongst consumers.

How do associated trademarks benefit a business?

Associated trademarks offer several benefits, including brand extension into new markets or product categories, risk mitigation when entering new markets, enhanced consumer loyalty through trusted brand association, market differentiation from competitors, and improved marketing efficiency by building on the existing brand’s recognition and goodwill.

How can I protect my associated trademark from infringement?

Proactive brand protection measures are crucial. This includes:

a. Regularly monitoring online and offline marketplaces for potential infringement.
b. Implementing trademark enforcement strategies, such as sending cease-and-desist letters or pursuing legal action against infringers.
c. Maintaining accurate records of your trademark registrations and renewals.

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